Arsenic, BeverageGrades, and the Power of Withholding Information

I received an unusual “story” by way of Palate Press this week. It looked like this:

To:
Submissions

Message:
Alcoholic beverage testing company, BeverageGrades has discovered lead
and arsenic present in wine at levels that exceed the Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) standard Maximum Contaminant Levels for
drinking water.
Independent laboratory testing has been conducted on the top selling
white wines in the United States. Approximately one in every three
bottles tested was found to contain either arsenic or lead levels that
exceed the Maximum Contaminant Level.
Regular consumption of these elements, even at low levels, can present
a serious health risk.

Topic (wine, food, wine pairing, travel, etc.)
Wine Science

Suggested Title
High Levels of Arsenic and Lead Detected in Wine

Lede
Approximately one third of the top selling wines in the United States
found to contain lead and arsenic.

Your Website or Other Writing Sample
http://www.beveragegrades.com

Preferred payment method:
Check

Mailing Address (Check)
7000 Broadway
Suite 307
Denver, CO
80221

PayPal email

BeverageGrades, it seems, is a young company creating a private database of beverage health information, summarized in their trademarked “grades.” They say that they run a bottle – of wine at the moment, of beer, spirits, and coolers in the future – through a pile of lab tests to create a profile for each product. Users can see calories, sugar, and carbohydrates per serving, plus a set of “grades” that are supposed to indicate how healthy a wine is overall, how “skinny” it is, how “pure” it is, how likely it is to trouble your allergies, and how likely it is to give you a headache. The problem with HealthyPour™, SkinnyGrade™, and the rest of these ratings is that if you’re looking for more information on how they’re calculated, you’re out of luck. New users have to click “I do” to having read BeverageGrade’s methodologies page, but those “methodologies” say nothing more detailed than “we take lots of measurements of lots of stuff.” And, rather than showing numbers for any of these measurements, wines are rated as average or better or worse than average.

Concerns about proprietary details aside, that’s not enough information. What in tarnation does “pure” mean? What counts as a “contaminant” or an “additive” in BeverageGrade-speak? How do they summarize how healthful a wine is when a whole pile of scientists are still trying to figure out how and why and whether wine is healthy? They list sodium and “vitamins and minerals,” but should I care about sodium in wine, and is wine a good source of “vitamins and minerals” in the first place?

Instead of seeking to educate consumers, BeverageGrades is patronizing them with overly simplistic branded products while hiding information. And that brings us back to arsenic.

Arsenic is found in wine. Recent studies in New Hampshire and France have shown higher arsenic concentrations (in toenails and urine) in wine drinkers versus non-wine drinkers (fish, beer, and Brussels sprouts were similarly implicated, as has been rice in studies based in Asian countries). Arsenic is found in water and soil; drinking water remains, in fact, our most significant source of arsenic exposure. Grapevines and some other plants seem to take up and concentrate it and other heavy metals. The FDA has set maximum limits on how much arsenic can be present in apple and pear juices in the US and is working on similar limits for rice; wine very well may be next on the list. If we stop here, things look bad. 

But stopping there means withholding important information. Sying that arsenic is found in wine is, crucially, different from saying that arsenic in wine poses a significant health risk. Arsenic in wine and arsenic as a health risk in general aren’t things we understand well yet. We don’t yet have a clear picture of how much arsenic is too much arsenic (the same is true for a lot of environmental toxins, including lead).

The several recent studies I found all indicate that arsenic in wine probably doesn’t pose a significant risk to most drinkers. The “probably,” “significant,” and “most” hedges in the previous sentence are all a nod to that yet-unsolved “how much arsenic is too much” problem. But an analysis of arsenic in wine, sake, and beer for sale in Central Europe concluded that it’s not a significant risk to consumers. A comparative risk assessment of fifteen “known and suspected human carcinogens” judged that ethanol was the only really significant carcinogen in alcoholic beverages; the rest, including arsenic, “may pose risks below thresholds normally tolerated for food contaminants.” In other words, these fish are too small to bother frying.

I suspect that BeverageGrades isn’t counting alcohol itself against a wine’s HealthyPour™ rating – though I don’t know for sure, since they’re not sharing that information. In any case, I appreciated a comment made by one reader of a popular press story about arsenic in wine, who suggested that not just drinking, but eating and breathing and sleeping were hazardous to our health, too, and that we should probably stop doing all of those things. Wine, unlike breathing, isn’t a necessity. But if we try to eliminate every risk from our way of life, we’ll end up not living at all. 

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2 thoughts on “Arsenic, BeverageGrades, and the Power of Withholding Information

  1. this article is a reflection of how good chemical analysis has become, down to parts per trillion or even quadrillion. The difference is perspective. Mushrooms contain afalatoxin, an extremely lethal poison for humans, but in so small a level that it does no harm. My grandparents made wine, drank it as the beverage of choice all their lives and lived to ripe old ages.

    • Excellent point, Joe. Because our resolution of detection is so great, judging what amongst what we find is significant is a real challenge. When I read medical articles, I often have to ask myself what the underlying assumed goal of the researchers and the study is: achieving the healthiest life possible, the longest life? I remain unconvinced that the healthiest life possible should always be our end goal and that healthiest invariably equates to best or most virtuous. It’s worth remembering, though, that prior to the contemporary era (notwithstanding your fine grandparents, but one example does not an argument make) Americans and Europeans died from all sorts of nasty diseases and problems that we couldn’t even imagine today. Did someone complain that we were worrying about insignificant, tiny things when Pasteur started exclaiming over bacteria? It’s impossible to tell what, amongst what we first see, is important until we spend more time studying it.

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