Making invisible things visible: Do yeast cells stick to cork during bottle aging?

Yeast do not seem to form biofilms on the bottoms of corks when they’re used, rather than metal crown caps, to secure Champagne bottles during their in-bottle secondary fermentation. This, at least, is the conclusion of an article in the current issue of the American Journal of Enology and Viticulture (paywall), in which Burgundy-based authors investigated the question for the sake of understanding whether Champagne producers, some of whom are using cork for their longer-aging wines, risked upsetting in-bottle fermentation dynamics. After a year of bottle fermentation and aging, a few cells apparently got caught in porous crevices of the cork, but systematic growth presaging the tenacity of a biofilm wasn’t happening.

That finding will no doubt interest the odd sparkling wine producer. Much more interesting is the method they used to make “invisible” cells visible and so reach that conclusion.

How do you determine whether a microbial biofilm is growing somewhere? Continue reading